Augustus; Tiberius; Caligula; Claudius; Nero. 🖼️ Print available here.

Appearance of The Principate [Pt. I]

27 BC–68 AD: The Julio-Claudian dynasty

Augustus (v1): ↖️ The Prima Porta (CC BY-SA 2.5); ↗️ Pergamum Museum (CC BY-SA 4.0); ↙️ Labicana; ↘️ British Museum
Augustus (v2): Aged. Hair appears slightly darker. Same bust references.
Tiberius: ↖️ Carlsberg Glyptotek; ↗️ Royal Ontario Museum; ↙️Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli ↘️ Museo Nazionale Napoli; Also: “The Lansdowne”
Caligula (v1): Met Gallery Also: New Carlsberg Gylototek
Caligula (v2): Previously used bust with greatest craftsmanship (↙️ Met Gallery), now depiction weighted to bust with most disfigurement. ↖️ Louvre bust as primary reference. ↗️ New Carlsberg Gylototek for skin tone. Asymetrical eye consistent with ↘️ Museum of Rome bust.
Caligula (v2.1): No longer referencing Met Gallery bust. Depiction weighted to busts with asymetrical eyes ↖️ Louvre; ↙️ Worchester Art Gallery; ↘️ Museum of Rome bust. ↗️ New Carlsberg Gylototek for skin tone and hair colour.
Claudius: ↖️ Naples National Archaeological Museum; ↗️ Vatican Museum; ↙️ Museum Chiaramonti (51–54 AD); ↘️ National Archaeological Museum of Spain
Nero (v1): ↖️ Musei Capitolini Rome; ↗️ Glyptothek Munich; ↙️ Uffizi Gallery, Florence; ↘️ Peter Paul Rubens
Nero (v2): Neck-beard hair on ↖️ Musei Capitolini Rome bust was incorrectly registering as a strong jawline. this has been fixed.



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